- Recent antibiotic therapy (within 30 days) is associated with poorer response to cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), translating to shorter survival regardless of tumor site.
Why this matters
- Broad-spectrum antibiotics can cause gut dysbiosis, impairing response to ICI therapy.
- Prospective study of 196 patients with cancer (69.9% men; median age, 68 years) receiving checkpoint inhibitors at 2 tertiary academic referral centers from January 2015 to January 2018.
- Funding: Imperial College National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Center; Imperial College Tissue Bank; Imperial Cancer Research UK Center.
- Most had NSCLC (60.7%) or melanoma (19.4%).
- Prior vs no antibiotic therapy was tied to poorer OS (2 vs 26 months; HR, 7.4; P<.001 by cancer type these os values were: style="list-style-type:circle;">
- NSCLC: 2.5 vs 26 months (P<.001>
- Melanoma: 3.9 vs 14 months (P<.001>
- Other tumor types: 1.1 vs 11 months (P<.001>
- No data on gut microbiota.
- Small sample size.